The condition of scientific and innovative activity in Ukraine in 2020: a scientific and analytical note
ІSBN 978-966-479-124-0 (Online)
T. Pysarenko – Deputy Director, Ph.D. tech. Science, Ukrainian institute of scientific and technical expertise and information, 180, Antonovycha Str., Kyiv, Ukraine, 03680; +38 096 3763814, Е-mail: email@example.com; ORCID: 0000-0001-9806-2872
T. Kuranda – Head of Departament of UkrISTEI, 180, Antonovycha Str., Kyiv, Ukraine, 03680; +38 (044) 521-00-02; firstname.lastname@example.org
T. Kvasha – head of the department, Ukrainian institute of scientific and technical expertise and information, 180, Antonovycha Str., Kyiv, Ukraine, 03680; (044) 5210074, Е-mail: email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org, ORCID: 0000-0002-1371-3531
O. Kochetkova – deputy head of department, Ukrainian Institute of Scientific and Technical Expertise and Information, 180, Antonovycha Str., Kyiv, Ukraine, 03680; +38 (044) 521-00-29; email@example.com, ORCID: 0000-0002-8124-911X
O. Paladchenko – head of sector, Ukrainian institute of scientific and technical expertise and information, 180, Antonovycha Str., Kyiv, Ukraine, 03680; +38 (044) 5210080, Е-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, ORCID: 0000-0002-5436-1608
I. Molchanova – Senior Researcher of State Institution “Ukrainian Institute of Scientific and Technical Expertise and Information”, Antonovycha Str., 180, Kyiv, Ukraine, 03680; +38 (044) 521-00-80; email@example.com; ORCID: 0000-0003-1679-5621
T. Havrys – head of sector of State Institution “Ukrainian Institute of Scientific and Technical Expertise and Information”, Antonovycha Str., 180, Kyiv, Ukraine, 03680; ORCID: 0000-0003-0874-2597
Osadcha A. B. – Senior Researcher of State Institution “Ukrainian Institute of Scientific and Technical Expertise and Information”, Antonovycha Str., 180, Kyiv, Ukraine, 03680; +38 (044) 521-00-29; firstname.lastname@example.org; ORCID: 0000-0001-5151-2901
Abstract. The results of the study of the condition of scientific and innovative activity in Ukraine in 2020 are presented based on data from the main administrators of budgetary funds, the State Statistics Service of Ukraine, foreign sources of information (world rankings, international scientometric databases). The scientific and analytical note presents the rating of Ukraine by international innovation indices, the human resources potential of science, the state of scientific activity and activities in the field of technology transfer in Ukraine, and also assesses the impact of science and innovation on its economy.
In particular, according to the results of several international ratings, the modern innovative potential and innovative ability of Ukraine was determined. Dynamics of ratings of Ukraine by four approaches to assessing the ability to innovations in 2014-2020 allows concluding that there is no active policy and breakthroughs in supporting innovation activities both by the state and by business. The basis of Ukrainian innovative competitiveness is human capital, higher education, as well as knowledge and research results. However, weak state institutions, an unfavorable environment for making innovative business and an unfriendly financial system hinder the development of entrepreneurial potential, create obstacles to the commercialization of innovations and their impact on GDP growth. The strength sides of Ukraine are the following: knowledge and technological results, innovative connections, human capital and research, opportunities for attracting talent, market and regulatory opportunities in the labor market, institutions, creativity, involvement of high technologies, skills. Human resources - a component of the indices, which remains the strongest side of Ukraine. The slow development of an innovative ecosystem that is attractive to researchers and engineers, along with a decrease in budget funding for education and science, can destroy this advantage of our country.
An analysis of the human resources potential of science in Ukraine identified the main problems in the field of personnel training, which are the excessive ramification of the network of educational institutions, an unsatisfactory level of financial support, the correlation of the structure of training specialists with the needs of domestic science and innovative economy. In recent years, certain steps have been taken towards optimizing the network of higher education institutions by reducing their number, but further actions are needed in the direction of improving approaches to management, financing in higher education, modernizing teaching and learning methods in universities in accordance with European standards in order to provide opportunities for young people in Ukraine to get the skills they need in the 21st century.
Funding for science research is steadily decreasing – from 0.70% in 2013 to a critical value – 0.41% in 2020. With such indicators, science ceases to perform its economic function.
Accordingly, the share of Ukraine in the global number of articles remains insignificant – 0.4%, the number of patents for inventions received by national applicants abroad in 2019 (the latest available data) decreased by 26% compared to 2016, the transfer of developed technologies was carried out mainly in the domestic market (96.8%) with a decrease in the number of transferred technologies by 19.2%.
The influence of scientific and innovative activities on the economy of Ukraine was determined by assessing the contribution of total factor productivity (TFP) to the country's GDP. If in 2018-2019 in Ukraine TFP was the most influential factor of economic growth and added 2.0-2.3 to the GDP index, which was at the level of the OECD countries with the highest TFP growth rates and indicated the effectiveness of innovation in Ukraine, in 2020 this indicator significantly decreased. The main factors that contributed to the decline in TFP in Ukraine in 2020 were, first of all, political factors and the crisis caused by the COVID-2019 pandemic, namely: a slowdown in business activity, which is typical for Ukraine during all presidential elections and during the crisis; a decrease in sales by industrial enterprises of the high-tech sector and a decrease in the share of gross value added in the output of this sector.
Keywords: Global Innovation Index, Global Competitiveness Index, European Innovation Scoreboard Index, Global Talent Competitiveness Index, high-tech sectors, knowledge-intensive segment in the economy, science state, science, science human resources, technology transfer, total factor productivity.
- Eurostat. Your key to European statistics Total R&D personnel and researchers by sectors of performance, as % of total labour force and total employment. URL: https://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/submitViewTableAction.do
- Eurostat. Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) % of GDP. URL: https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/tgm/table.do?tab=table&init=1&language=en&pcode=t2020_20&plugin=1
- OECD. Gross domestic spending on R&D. URL: https://data.oecd.org/rd/gross-domestic-spending-on-r-d.htm
- (2013). Westmore Ben Policy incentives for private innovation and maximising the returns. Ben Westmore. OECD Journal: Economic Studies, Is. 1, Р. 121–158.
- Pysarenko, T.V., Kvasha, T.K. ta in. (2020). Innovatsiina diialnist v Ukraini u 2019 rotsi: naukovo-analitychna dopovid [Innovative activity in Ukraine in 2019: scientific and analytical report]. K.: UkrINTEI, 46 p.
- (2016). OECD Taxonomy of Economic Activities Based on R&D Intensity: OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers, 4, 25 р. URL: https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/science-and-technology/oecd-taxonomy-of-economic-activities-based-on-r-d-intensity_5jlv73sqqp8r-en
- Global KTI industries, by output and share of global GDP: 2018. - Production and Trade of Knowledge- and Technology-Intensive Industries | NSF - National Science Foundation
- High-tech exports. Exports of high technology products as a share of total exports. Statistics | Eurostat (europa.eu)